increasing accuracy

A collection of stuff all related to the design task of: How can we go from objects with accuracy X to an object with accuracy greater than X?

The dimensions of the two aspects being compared need not be the same. An object might be an abstract structure, or a physical entity. Anything that has a measure with error bounds.

For example: Given wood cut to a length of accuracy X how do we produce a wheel of accuracy less than X? By rotating the wood around an axis and prescribing a wheel we can produce a wheel whose curvature has an accuracy greater than the accuracy of the length.

Imagine cutting a length of wood to an intended length of 20 cm. The wood supply only has gnarly, bent pieces, your saw is rusty and you have no tape measure. At best, once a piece is cut, you figure the piece is 20 cm ± 5cm. Placing a nail somewhere around one end and a pencil around the other: Use the nail as an axis and prescribe a circle. How accurate is that circle? How closely would that circle match an ideal circle of same average diameter. Do we even need to know the diameter accurately?

This is of interest of me for inverse design processes.

Kalman Filters